Currently the Republican Party support a conservative ideology, but until the 1970s was a conglomerate of Midwestern conservatives, Western evangelicals, Northern progressives and moderates.
In 1852, the Democrat candidate Fanklin Pierce won the election by a landslide and his opposant, the Whig Party, slowly dissolved. In 1854, the Northern Whigs (pro-banks and protectionists) and the Free Soilers (anti-slavery and moderates) merged into a the Republican Party, in opposition to the Pierce Administration and his policies, mainly on slavery. In 1860, thanks to a conflict between Northern and Southern Democrats, the Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln became President. Under Lincoln, the Union won on the Confederate states during the Civil War, the slavery was abolished and the Recostruction Era began. After Lincoln, assassinated in 1865, well 8 Republicans became Presidents: Ulysses Grant, Rutheford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft. The Republican line was interrupted only in 1884 and 1892 by Democrat Grover Cleveland. At the time, the Republican agenda included high tariff, expansion to the West, isolationism, African Americans' rights and a strong army. However, there were also many corruption scandals involving the Republican admnistrations. In 1912, a sentiment of reform and change lead to the election of the Democrat Woodrow Wilson as President. In 1920, the election of Warren G. Harding, a conservative Republican, permitted a brif age of prosperity, ended in 1929 with the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression. In 1932, the Republican Herbert Hoover was defeated by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt by a landslide.